如何与用户有效沟通

        《人机交互》对设计一款iOS产品的重要性。甚至觉得,没完整看过两遍的人没有资格做iOS应用开发,不管是做产品设计还是研发人员,再怎么强调它的重要性也不为过。但同时我也在思考:为什么苹果提供这么全的指南,大家还是不太愿意去阅读?除了因为是全英文之外,更可能是太过于枯燥无味,就像看所有的官方文档一样。因此我希望结合自己做产品的一些经验,提炼出iOS人机交互指南的重要内容。希望对那些不想看官方文档,但又想多了解的人带来些帮助。

设计准则

1.Aesthetic Integrity 美学完整性

Apple: Aesthetic integrity represents how well an app’s appearance and behavior integrate with its function. For example, an app that helps people perform a serious task can keep them focused by using subtle, unobtrusive graphics, standard controls, and predictable behaviors. On the other hand, an immersive app, such as a game, can deliver a captivating appearance that promises fun and excitement, while encouraging discovery.

对于工具式和沉浸式应用提供符合自身的设计方式,对整体的设计应该有所倾向。工具式应该注重用户的使用效率,通过通用的图标和可被预期的操作来降低使用门槛,从而提高效率。而沉浸式的应用(例如游戏)应该为用户提供更多想象空间,例如更精美的画面和新颖的玩法。所谓的美学完整性应该是要符合当前形式(应用类型)的美学标准。

2.Consistency一致性

Apple: A consistent app implements familiar standards and paradigms by using system-provided interface elements, well-known icons, standard text styles, and uniform terminology. The app incorporates features and behaviors in ways people expect.

应该包括应用内部的一致性,以及与iOS系统操作的一致性。包括使用系统自带的图标、通用的术语等。应该强调用户的功能和交互的可预知性。

3.Direct Manipulation直接操作

Apple: The direct manipulation of onscreen content engages people and facilitates understanding. Users experience direct manipulation when they rotate the device or use gestures to affect onscreen content. Through direct manipulation, they can see the immediate, visible results of their actions.

用户无需借助其他介质,可在界面上直接进行操作,包括对屏幕旋转的响应。直接操作强调用户可见即可操作的原则。

4.Feedback反馈

Apple: Feedback acknowledges actions and shows results to keep people informed. The built-in iOS apps provide perceptible feedback in response to every user action. Interactive elements are highlighted briefly when tapped, progress indicators communicate the status of long-running operations, and animation and sound help clarify the results of actions.

针对用户的操作进行反馈,例如按钮按下后进行高亮。良好的应用设计应该是,能够为用户提供即时、可预知、可感知的操作反馈。人机交互中最重要的一点是,让用户感觉TA是在跟一个人进行交流而不是跟一台机器交流。

5.Metaphors隐喻

Apple: People learn more quickly when an app’s virtual objects and actions are metaphors for familiar experiences—whether rooted in the real or digital world. Metaphors work well in iOS because people physically interact with the screen. They move views out of the way to expose content beneath. They drag and swipe content. They toggle switches, move sliders, and scroll through picker values. They even flick through pages of books and magazines.

类比用户熟悉的操作。当应用内操作与用户过往经验类似,他们就能快速地学习各种操作,有更好的体验。这些参考可以来自于现实世界或者电子世界。(这可能就是乔帮主喜欢拟物化的原因)

6.UserControl用户控制

Apple: Throughout iOS, people—not apps—are in control. An app can suggest a course of action or warn about dangerous consequences, but it’s usually a mistake for the app to take over the decision-making. The best apps find the correct balance between enabling users and avoiding unwanted outcomes. An app can make people feel like they’re in control by keeping interactive elements familiar and predictable, confirming destructive actions, and making it easy to cancel operations, even when they’re already underway.

可控性。对用户来说,应用进行的一切操作都在可控范围内,包括数据的获取、更新、删除,都有、应该让用户觉得一切信息都是透明的。产品设计人员需考虑:什么操作都弹窗询问用户与什么操作都默默进行,这两者之间要如何做到平衡。实际上,什么都问就等于什么都没有问。可控性不应该妨碍用户体验。

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